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A new access report (beta) is available via the reports page. This provides an across course and individual course views with data summarising study hours, assessments complete and average outcome.

Economic Terms

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CAP

The Common Agricultural Policy is a system of subsidies and programmes to encourage and control the supply of agricultural products within the EU.

It works by guaranteeing farmers a given price for their agricutltural products and therefore removes any uncertainty around and instability around crop prices. It would work in the same way as a buffer stcok scheme should work. The EU would buy goods from EU farmers at the high price if their was oversupply in the market. The amount they would buy wold be equal to (Qs-Qd). This price was often far higher than the market price so that it could supplement farmer's incomes during uncertain times. However it did incentivise farmers to over-produce to receive a higher income from the EU government and therefore was very inefficient. The process of the CAP is shown below in the diagram.


Capital

The factor of production that is used to produce goods and services. Capital can be either fixed capital e.g. offices, factories, machines, tools, vehicles and transport links or working capital e.g. raw materials and components. The reward for the use of capital is interest.


Capital account

Records all the flows of capital arising from investment and currency transactions - Foreign Direct Investment (more than 10% of the share value of a company acquired), Portfolio Investments (less than 10% of the share value of a company acquired), trade credit, loans, currency trading and bank deposit movements.


Capital Adequacy Ratio

This ratio is used to protect depositors and promote the stability and efficiency in financial markets. The amount due to be held by banks depends on the risk profile of their assets i.e. the riskier the assets the larger the capital charge attatched to it.

 

 


Capital Adequacy Requirements

These are the requirements implaced on banks for the minimum amount of capital they have to hold against the value of their assets to act as a buffer stock towards losses that could threaten the solvency of an individual bank and the systemic stability of an entire industry. Since 1988 the Basle Committee has set these and has called them BASLE, with additional follow-ups to improve these requirements called BASLE II and BASLE III.


Capital deepening

Is when capital levels increase at a faster rate than labour inputs i.e. total capital and capital per worker increases.

Capital gain

The difference between the acquisition and sale price of capital. This is mostly associated with investments in assets e.g. property, shares and other financial assets.

Capital good

Goods that are used in the production of other goods and services e.g. machinery, computers, vehicles. They will create more value than consumer good and contribute to economic growth.

The diagram below shows an economy that is positioned to produce either capital goods or consumer goods and because capital goods have a bigger influence on economic growth, this economy is slanted towards producing more capital goods compared to consumer goods. But, it is still positioned on the PPF and therefore is fully utilising all the resources available in the economy.


Capital goods

Goods that are used in the production of other goods and services e.g. machinery, computers, vehicles. They will create more value than consumer good and contribute to economic growth.

Capital Markets

Provides medium to long-term finance to firms and governments via long-term debt or equity. These instruments are illiquid as these instruments typically last for more than a year.

Below is a table to illustrate the methods in which different economic agents can obtain finance.


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